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Юлия Швецова Исполнитель: Юлия Швецова 
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выполнить задания по английскому языку, для зачёта. По учебнику "Английски для социологов" Москва Издательство «Флинта» Издательство «Наука» 2000 Составитель: И.С. Рушинская с 6той по 22 страницу все задания VOCABULARY PRACTICE I. Read and translate the text using a dictionarylf necessary. II. Find In the text the English equivalents of the following: изучать человеческие взаимоотношения; изучение; обществен¬ное поведение; влияние общественных отношений на; область исследования; заниматься (интересоваться) чем-либо; источни¬ки информации; внешние черты; главная цель; выявить приме¬ры; дать объяснения чему-либо; социальный контекст; полагать¬ся на; творческое мышление; осознание (осведомленность); дать новое понимание; повседневная жизнь; область знаний; акаде¬мические дисциплины; особая ориентация; исследовать способы; важность; международные отношения; работа правительства; при¬менение силы и власти; исследовать личность; в отличие от; под¬черкивать (выделять); подход к; рассматривать с точки зрения; наоборот; сосредоточить внимание на; общественная деятельность; общественные явления; увеличивать (усиливать); здравый смысл; мудрость; сведение — сведения; важно отметить (подчеркнуть); проверить (испытать); исследовать. III. Supply the missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below. 1) The sociologist has ... of examining human interactions. 2) Sociology is the ... study of social behavior and human groups. 3) As a field of study, sociology has an ... scope. 4) Sociologists are not... to just recognize this fact. 5) Thus ... simply accepting this fact as it is, sociologists study and analyze it thoroughly. 6) This term ... the body of knowledge obtained by methods ... systematic observations. 7) Sciences are ... divided into natural and social ones. 8) Natural science is the study of ... of nature. 9) Social science is the study of ... of human society. 10) Sociologists ... examine our ... with people. 11) Let us examine different approaches to the ... of gambling. 12) Participants in gambling ... friendship groups. 13) For such persons gambling is .... 14) In our daily life we ... common sense to get us through .... 15) Each piece of information must be analyzed ... other data. in relationship to, rely on, a form of recreation, establish, issue, scientifically, social relations, various aspects, physical features, commonly, refers to, based upon, instead of, content, extremely broad, systematic, a distinctive way, unfamiliar situations. IV. Studythe following word combinations and use them in sentences of your own: to focus on, to have some influence on, to influence smth, to deal with, to be concerned with, to report news, to involve doing smth, passionate desire, to see in person, to attempt to do smth, shared feelings, in a critical sense, to be interested in smth, to obtain, to include, to have a common focus on, to remain in existence, an approach to, to view smth from several perspectives, at least, at times, to seem like. COMPREHENSION EXERCISES I. Reread the text and answer the following questions. 1) What does sociology focus on as a field of study? 2) What and who does it deal with? 3) What differs the work of a journalist from that of a sociologist? 4) What are the main goals of the sociological perspective? 5) Why is the sociological imagination very important in doing sociological research? 6) What types are the sciences commonly divided into? 7) What differs natural science from social science? 8) What social sciences do you know and what do they study? 9) What differs sociology from other social sciences? 10) Why should a social scientist view social phenomena from different perspectives? 11) What is common sense? 12) How should common sense be used by social scientists? II. Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions: sociology, sociological perspective, sociological imagination, science, natural science, social science, common sense. III. Speak on sociologyand its aspects in brief and illustrate your report withsituations or examples of your own. IV. Comment on the following topics, viewing them from the sociological perspective: 1) Gambling. 2) Passionate desire of fans to see their stars in person. 3) Why aren't we interested in outstanding scientists as passionately as we are in movie and rock stars? Text II. WHAT IS SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY? ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY Why do people commit suicide? One traditional commonsense answer is that people inherit the desire to kill themselves. Another view is that sunspots drive people to take their own lives. Sociologists are not particularly interested in why any one individual commits suicide; they are more concerned with why people in general take their own lives. In order to undertake such research, sociologists develop theories that offer a general explanation of some type of behavior. In sociology a theory is a statement or a series of statements that uses concepts to explain problems, actions or behavior. An effective theory will have both explanatory and predictive power. That is, it will help us to develop a broad and integrated view of seemingly isolated phenomena and to understand how one type of change in an environment leads to others. An essential task in building a sociological theory is to examine the relationship between bits of data, gathered through research, that may seem completely unrelated. For example, in researching the problem of suicide sociologists are primarily concerned not with the personalities of individual suicide victims, but rather with suicide rates and how they vary from country to country. And their research suggests that suicide, while a solitary act, is related to group life. They have developed a theory to explain how individual behavior can be understood within a social context. Their theory has predictive power, since it suggests that suicide rates will rise or fall in conjunction with certain social and economic changes. It is important to understand that a theory — even the best of theories — is not a final statement about human behavior. This theory of suicide is not an exception. Sociologists continue to examine factors which contribute to a society's rate of suicide. The sociological research shows that the incidence of suicide increases following nationally televised stories about suicide, and the impact is the greatest after the publicized suicide of an entertainer or politician, and is somewhat less after the suicide of an artist, a criminal or a member of the economic. elite. One means of classifying sociological theories is by the subject under study. Thus, there are theories concerning the causes of criminal behavior or the universal nature of religion. Yet, theories can also be distinguished by levels of analysis. There are two of them. Macrosociology concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilization. Thus, the above described cross-cultural study of suicide rates is an example of macrosociology. By contrast, microsociology stresses study of small groups and often uses experimental studies in laboratories. Sociologists find it useful to employ both of these approaches. In fact, we can learn a great deal by using macro-level and micro-level analysis to study the same problem. For example, we might try to understand criminal behavior at the macroscopic level by analyzing crime rates in various countries and at the microscopic level by examining the social forces that influence individuals to become criminals or delinquents. Origins of Sociology. Philosophers and thinkers of ancient and medieval societies made countless observations about human behavior and predicted that a systematic study of human behavior was needed to improve society. The first founder of sociology as a science was the French theorist Auguste Comte (1798-1857). He gave sociology its name. The second founder of sociology was Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). He greatly dominated scholarly thinking in his times by suggesting that societies are bound to change. Few sociologists have had such a dramatic impact on many different areas within the discipline as Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) did. Above all, he will be remembered for his insistence that behavior cannot be fully understood in individualistic terms, that it must be understood within a larger social context. He developed a fundamental thesis to help understand all forms of society through intensive study of group behavior. Another important theorist who contributed to the scientific study of society was the German philosopher Max Weber. He pointed out that much of our social behavior cannot reanalyzed without studying the subjective meanings people attach to their actions — how they themselves view and explain their behavior. He suggested that sociologists should thoroughly consider thoughts and feelings of the people under study. Contemporary sociology reflects the diverse contributions of earlier theorists and gains new insights which help to better understand the workings of modern human society. VOCABULARY PRACTICE I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary. II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following: покончить жизнь самоубийством (3), точка зрения, начать исследование, разработать теорию, дать общее объяснение чему-либо, ряд утверждений, использовать общие концепции, разра¬ботать широкое и цельное представление, на вид несвязанные явления, окружающая среда, отдельные сведения, получить в ходе исследования, процент самоубийств, изменяться, иметь отноше¬ние к чему-либо, не быть исключением, предмет исследования, различить, вышеописанная, экспериментальные исследования, использовать (применять), древний, средневековый, господст-вовать в научном мире, вносить вклад в, придавать значение чему-либо, рассматривать, проникнуть во что-либо. III. Supplythe missing words and word combinations choosing among those given below. 1) One traditional ... answer why people commit suicide is that people ... the desire to kill themselves. 2) Sociologists are ... interested in this problem. 3) They are ... with why people ... take their own lives. 4)... to undertake such research sociologists ... theories. 5) An ... theory will have both ... and ... power. 6) An ... task in building any theory is to examine data that seem .... 7) Suicide, while a ... act, is related to .... 8) The ... of suicide increases following ... televised stories about suicide. 9) There are theories ... the causes of criminal behavior. 10) Sociologists find it useful... both of these. 11) They examine the social forces that ... individuals to become criminals or ... 12) Philosophers of the past made ... about human behavior. 13) A ... study of human behavior is needed to.... 14) The first... of sociology was Auguste Comte. 15) Societies are ... to change. 16) Herbert Spencer had a ... on sociology. 17) Behavior cannot be understood in ..., it must be understood within ... . 18) Contemporary sociology reflects the ... of earlier theorists. diverse contributions, individualistic terms, a larger social context, dramatic, impact, bound, founder, systematic, improve society, countless observations, influence, delinquents, to employ, approaches, concerning, incidence, nationally, solitary, group behavior, essential, completely unrelated, effective, explanatory, predictive, in order, concerned, inherit, particularly, commonsense, in general, develop. IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own: to drive smb to do smth, to develop a broad and integrated view, to lead to smth, to examine the relationships between, to gather through research, to research a problem, to be primarily concerned with, to vary from country to country, in conjunction with, a final statement, a means to classify, causes of, to concentrate on, by contrast, to find it useful, to be bound to do smth, to develop a fundamental thesis, intensive study, to point out, to attach smth to smth, reflect smth, the workings of human society. COMPREHENSION EXERCISES I. Reread the text and answer the following questions. 1) What are sociologists particularly interested in, while investigating a problem of human behavior? 2) What is a theory and what makes any theory especially effective? 3) Why is it very important to examine the relationships between bits of data gathered through research? 4) How are theories classified? 5) What levels of analysis in sociology do you know? 6) Is sociology really a new science? 7) Who are the two founders of sociology? 8) What other important theorists in sociology do you know? II. Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions: theory, sociological theory, macrosociology, microsociology. III. Speak on the sociological theory and its aspects in brief and illustrate your report withsituations or examples of your own. IV. Speak on the origins of sociology, famous theorists of the past and their contributions to the scientific study of society. Name some contemporarysociological scientists bothforeign and in this country and discuss their impact on this academic discipline. V. Comment on the increasing incidence of suicide in modern human society and factors that cause it viewing the problem from the sociological perspective and theory. VI. Provide sociological explanations for the causes of criminal behavior in Russia employing macro-level and micro-level analyses. Revision Exercises on Unit One I. Revise the active vocabulary and the definitions of the key terms of unit one and translate the following intoEnglish. 1) Социология — это последовательное изучение общественно¬го поведения групп людей. 2) Как область исследования социо¬логия имеет чрезвычайно широкую сферу применения и занимает¬ся изучением различных групп людей, организаций и их проблем. 3) Задачей социологии является не только изучение внешних черт человеческих поступков, но и определение моделей обществен¬ного поведения. 4) Пытаясь понять общественное поведение, со-циологи полагаются на особый вид творческого мышления, со¬циологическое воображение, которое помогает им определить вза¬имоотношения между индивидуумом и обществом. 5) В отличие от других общественных наук, социология особое внимание уде¬ляет тому влиянию, которое общество оказывает на человечес¬кие отношения и поведение. 6) Рассматривая общественные яв¬ления с разных точек зрения, мы можем лучше понять поведение людей. 7) В нашей повседневной жизни мы полагаемся на здра¬вый смысл, чтобы найти выход из сложных ситуаций, но, к со¬жалению, этот источник знаний не всегда надежен. 8) Времена¬ми находки социологов могут показаться обычным здравым смыс¬лом, но важно отметить, что эти находки тщательно проверяют¬ся исследователями. 9) Чтобы предпринять какое-то исследова¬ние, социологи разрабатывают теории, которые предлагают об¬щее объяснение того или иного вида поведения людей. 10) Глав¬ная задача социологической теории — это исследование взаимо¬связей между отдельными сведениями, которые на первый взгляд могут показаться абсолютно несвязанными. 11) Социологи раз¬работали теории, которые объясняют, как можно понять поведение отдельного индивидуума внутри социального контекста. 12) Макросоциология изучает широкомасштабные явления или всю цивилизацию. 13) Микросоциология основное внимание уде¬ляет изучению небольших групп людей и часто использует экспе¬риментальные исследования в лаборатории. 14) Социологи счи¬тают полезным использование обоих этих подходов. 15) Филосо¬фы и мыслители древности и средневековья проводили много¬численные наблюдения человеческого поведения и предсказали, что последовательное изучение человеческого поведения необхо¬димо для улучшения общества. 16) Современная социология от¬ражает весь этот разнообразный вклад древних мыслителей и со¬здает новые представления, которые помогают глубже понять пути развития человеческого общества. II. Reread the texts of unit one again and discuss the problem-questions given in the learning objectives in the introduction tothe unit. III. Comment on the following quotation thinking like sociologists: «To attempt to understand human behavior is ... the most exciting intellectual challenge in the world» (Milton M. Gordon «The Scope of Sociology», 1988). Unit Two. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Looking Ahead Unit two examines sociology as asocial science.The basic principles and stages of scientific method are described. A number of techniques commonly used in sociological research are presented. Particular attention is given to the practical and ethical challenges that sociologists face in studying human behavior and to Max Weber's call for «value neutrality» in social science research. Learning Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to answer the following questions: 1. How do sociologists use scientific method? 2. Why does the conclusion of a sociological study point the way to new research? 3. What are the practical and ethical challenges faced by sociologists who wish to conduct participant-observation research? 4. How can sociologists use unobtrusive measures to study social phenomena indirectly? 5. Why is it valuable for sociologists to have a code of professional ethics? 6. What is the objective of basic sociology, and what relationship should there be between basic and applied sociology? Text III. WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC METHOD? How do sociologists study human behavior and institutions? Like the typical citizen on the street, the sociologist is interested in the central questions of our time. Is the family falling apart? Why is there so much crime? and such like. Such issues concern most people, whether or not they have academic training. However, unlike the typical citizen, the sociologist must use scientific method in studying society. Scientific method is a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem. A key element in scientific method is planning. When sociologists wish to learn more about human behavior, they do not simply walk out the door, or pick up the telephone, and begin asking questions. There are five basic steps in scientific method that researchers follow in developing useful research. These are: 1) defining the problem, 2) reviewing the literature, 3) formulating the hypothesis, 4) selecting the research design and then collecting and analyzing data, 5) developing the conclusion. An actual example will illustrate the workings of scientific method. In the 1980s, people in the United States became increasingly aware of the plight of the homeless in the nation's urban centers. In the past the homeless were primarily older white males living as alcoholics in «skid row» areas. However, today's homeless persons tend to be younger and include growing numbers of families without any shelter. Defining the problem. The first step in any sociological research project is to state as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate. In beginning their work on homelessness, a team of sociologists headed by David Snow considered the question of who the homeless are. The researchers learned that the mass media presented the homeless primarily as mentally ill. The sociologists developed a researchable question: «How representative is the media image of the homeless?» After that they developed an operational definition, i.e. an explanation of the abstract concept «mental illness». They classified homeless persons as mentally ill «if they had contact with one or more mental health agencies and were simultaneously diagnosed by the agency personnel as having one or more mental health problems.» Reviewing the literature. By conducting a review of the literature, researchers refine the problem under study, clarify possible techniques to be used in collecting data and may avoid making unnecessary mistakes. When David Snow and his colleagues began considering mental illness among the homeless, they turned to two types of literature. First, they reviewed «popular» magazines such as «Time», «Newsweek» and «People» and found a consistent image of the homeless as «street people» who had previously spent some time in mental hospitals. Second, they examined the systematic studies done in Boston and New York which indicated that homeless persons were usually found to have a diagnosable mental illness. But were these studies representative of the homeless? Still further review showed that when the researchers focused on the homeless in genеral, the proportions of homeless persons found to be mentally ill were much lower. Formulating the hypothesis. After reviewing the earlier research concerning homeless the researchers developed a guess about the relationship between mental illness and homelessness. Such a speculative state¬ment about the relationship between two or more factors is called a hypothesis. A hypothesis essentially tells us what we are looking for in our research. In order to be meaningful, it must be testable. As part of the study of homelessness, one possible hypothesis might be: «Most homeless persons are not mentally ill.» In formulating a hypothesis, we do not imply that it is correct. We merely suggest that it is worthy of study, that the hypothesis should be scientifically tested and confirmed, refuted or revised, depending on the outcome of the study. Collecting and analyzing data. In order to test a hypothesis and determine if it is supported or refuted, researchers need to collect information. To guide them in collecting and analyzing data, they employ one of the research designs, the most effective of them being selecting the sample. There are many kinds of samples, of which the random sample is frequently used by social scientists. By using the random sampling techniques, sociologists do not need to question everyone in a population. In the study of homelessness the researchers drew a random sample of 800 names from the 13,881 homeless men and women who had registered at least once in the Salvation Army during a 14-month period and then compared this sample with the records of six other states and local agencies such as hospitals, mental health institutions, etc. Ultimately, a usable sample of 767 persons was selected for the study of homelessness. Developing the conclusion. Scientific studies do not aim to answer all the questions that can be raised about a particular object. Therefore, the conclusion of a research study represents both an end and a beginning. It terminates a specific phase of investigation, but it should also generate ideas for future study. This is true of the research on the homeless conducted by David Snow and his colleagues. Sociological studies do not always confirm the original hypothesis. In many instances, a hypothesis is refuted, and researchers have to reformulate their conclusions, to reexamine their methodology and to make changes in the research design. In the study discussed above, however, the data confirmed the hypothesis: most homeless persons are not mentally ill. The researchers concluded that the homeless are not typically mentally dysfunctional, they are merely trapped in economic conditions that lead to poverty and despair. With this finding in mind further implications are evident: policy makers must begin to address the issue of homelessness in a very different manner and greater attention must be given to the structural problems of society that contribute to homelessness, including unemployment and the inadequate supply of low-cost housing. In Summary: Scientific Method Let us briefly summarize the process of scientific method through a review of the example. The researchers defined the problem (the relationship between homelessness and mental illness). They reviewed the literature (other studies of the presence of mental illness among the homeless) and formulated the hypothesis («Most homeless persons are not mentally ill»). Snow and his colleagues collected the data by creating an appropriate sample of homeless persons and analyzed them. Finally, they developed the conclusion: the typical homeless person is likely not to have a history of mental illness. Thus, through the systematic application of scientific method, these researchers studied a contemporary social issue and generated meaningful findings of interest to sociologists, mental health workers and policy makers. VOCABULARY PRACTICE I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary. II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following: отдельная проблема (спорный вопрос), интересовать (касать¬ся) кого-либо, гарантировать объективность и последовательность, определить проблему, изучить литературу, сформулировать гипо¬тезу, выбрать план исследования, собрать и проанализировать данные, сделать вывод, актуальный пример, главным образом, ясно определить, средства массовой информации, персонал, про¬вести обзор, четко определить проблему исследования, выявить технические приемы, избегать ошибок, постоянный образ, со¬ответствовать чему-либо, значимый, иметь в виду (подразуме¬вать), подтвердить, опровергать, пересмотреть, конечный резуль¬тат исследования, руководить (направлять), отбирать, случайный отбор, провести отбор для исследования, завершить отдельную фазу исследования, создавать идеи для будущего изучения, по¬пасть в ловушку, представлять интерес для. III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below: 1) Like the ... on the street, the sociologist is interested in questions that... most people. 2) A... of scientific method is planning. 3) Sociologists do not simply ... the door or ... the telephone to learn more about human behavior. 4) People in the United States became ... of the plight of the homeless in the nation's ... centers. 5) Sociologists try to develop ... questions. 6) First, they reviewed ... such as «Time», «Newsweek» and «People». 7) Second, they examined ... done in Boston and New York. 8) Still ... review refuted this hypothesis. 9) A hypothesis ... tells us what we are looking for in our research. 10) In formulating a hypothesis we ... suggest that it is ... study. 11) Sociologists ... one of the research designs. 12) The random sample is ... used by social scientists. 13) Scientific studies do not ... to answer all the questions about .... 14) The conclusion of a research study... both an end, and a beginning. 15) The homeless are merely trapped in economic conditions that lead to ... and .... 16)... further implications are evident. 17)... contributes to homelessness. 18) Through ... of scientific method the researchers studied a ... social issue ... to sociologists,... and ... . policy makers, mental health workers, contemporary, the systematic application, the inadequate supply of low-costing housing, with this finding in mind, poverty, despair, represents, aim, a particular object, frequently, employ, merely, worthy of, essentially, further, the systematic studies, «popular magazines», researchable, aware, urban, walk out, pick up, key element, typical citizen, concern, of interest. IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own: to be interested in, to concern smb, (un)like smb, to ensure smth, the workings of a method, to be aware of, to tend to smth, to state as clearly as possible, to present ... as ... , to be representative of, to conduct a review, to avoid doing smth, further (review, investigation, etc.), to focus on, to imply, to be worthy of, to depend on, ultimately, both ... and ..., to be true of, to confirm a hypothesis, to make changes in, to be trapped, to lead to poverty and despair, to contribute to, an (in)adequate supply of, to be of interest to smb. COMPREHENSION EXERCISES I. Reread the text and answer the following questions. 1) What questions are sociologists interested in? 2) What differs the sociologist from the typical citizen? 3) What is scientific method and why is planning its key element? 4) What are the five basic steps in scientific method? 5) What does it mean to define a problem? 6) How do sociologists review the literature concerning a problem under study? 7) What is a hypothesis? Is it always correct? 8) How do sociologists test a hypothesis? 9) Why do you think that the random sample is frequently used by social scientists? 10) How do you understand that developing the conclusion is not the end of a research study? 11) What do researchers have to do if their hypothesis is refuted? II. Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions: scientific method, hypothesis, research design, random sample. III. Speak on scientific method and its aspects in brief and illustrate your reports withsituations and examples of your own. IV. Employthe scientific method and its stages described in this text and comment on the problem of the homeless in Russia. V. Give some other actual examples of human behavior which can be analyzed with the help of this scientific method of sociological research. Comment on them thinking like sociologists. Text IV. RESEARCH DESIGNS FOR COLLECTING DATA. ETHICS OF RESEARCH An important aspect of sociological research is the decision as to how data should be collected. A research design is a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically. Sociologists regularly use experiments, participant observations, surveys and unobtrusive techniques to generate data for their research. Experiments. When sociologists wish to study a possible cause-and-effect relationship, they may conduct experiments. An experiment is an artificially created situation that allows the researcher either to confirm or to refute the hypothesis under study. In the classic method of conducting an experiment, two groups of people are selected and compared: the experimental group which is exposed to the experiment and the control group which is not. Participant observation. It is a research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation in and observation of a group or a community under study. In some cases, the sociologist actually «joins» the group for a period of time to get an accurate sense of how it operates. In conducting participant observation research the investigator may face several problems. Firstly, in our society many people resent the feeling of '«being studied». Thus, if the group sees the researcher as an outsider and an observer — rather than a member of the group — its members may feel uneasy and hide many thoughts and emotions. On the other hand, if the researcher disguises his or her identity or purpose, he or she is being somewhat dishonest and this may also distort the group process. Finally, sociologists must learn to see the world as the group sees it. This raises a delicate question regarding the effect of the group on the observer and the observer on the group. The sociologist must retain a certain level of detachment from the group under study and the observer cannot allow the close associations or even friendships that inevitably develop or influence the conclusion of the study. Surveys. Almost all of us have responded to surveys of one kind or another. A survey is a study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire, which provides sociologists with information concerning how people think and act. Each of these forms has its own advantages. An interview can obtain a high response rate because people find it more difficult to turn down a personal request for an interview than to throw away a written questionnaire. On the other hand, questionnaires have the advantage of being cheaper. Also, since the questions are written, the researcher knows that there is some guarantee of consistency, whereas five interviewers can ask the same question in five different ways. Unobtrusive measures. They include a variety of research techniques that have no impact on who or what is being studied. Social scientists and students from the University of Arizona studied people's spending and eating habits by examining household garbage left out on the street. This is an unconventional example of the use of unobtrusive measures in social scientific research. The basic techniques of unobtrusive measures are the use of statistics and studying cultural, economic and political documents, including newspapers, periodicals, radio and television tapes, diaries, songs, folklore and legal papers, to name a few examples. It is important to realize that research designs need not be viewed as mutually exclusive. Two or more methods used together may be especially informative. For example, unobtrusive methods have proved to be valuable as a supplement to other research methods. One investigator wished to examine the relationship between reported and actual beer consumption. He obtained a «front door» measure of consumption by asking residents of houses how much beer they drank each week. At the same time, a «backdoor» measure was developed by counting the number of beer cans in their garbage. This backdoor method produced a considerably higher estimate of beer consumption. Ethics of research. Most sociological research uses people as sources of information — as respondents to survey questions, participants in experiments or subjects of observation. That is why in conducting research sociologists must abide by the code of ethics that puts forth the following basic principles: 1. Maintain objectivity and integrity in research. 2. Respect the subject's right to privacy and dignity. 3. Protect subjects from personal harm. 4. Preserve confidentiality. 5. Acknowledge research collaboration and assistance. 6. Disclose all sources of financial support. The ethical considerations of sociologists lie not only in the methods used, but in the way the results are interpreted. We recognize that sociologists will be influenced by their own personal values in selecting questions for research but under no condition can a researcher allow his or her personal feelings to influence the interpretation of data. In conducting research, sociologists must practice value neutrality in Max Weber's phrase. And as part of this neutrality, investigators have an ethical obligation to accept research findings even when the data run counter to their own personal views, to theoretically based explanations, or to widely accepted beliefs. The issue of value neutrality becomes especially delicate when one considers the relationship of sociology to government. Max Weber urged that sociology remain an autonomous discipline, and not become unduly influenced by any one segment of society. According to his ideal of value neutrality, sociologists must remain free to reveal information that is embarrassing to government. VOCABULARY PRACTICE I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary. II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following: что касается, план исследования, получить данные, наблюде¬ния участника эксперимента, опрос, ненавязчивый, причинно-следственные отношения, проводить эксперимент, искусственно созданная ситуация, подвергаться чему-либо, ясно установить, исследователь (2), испытывать неприязнь к, наблюдатель, испы¬тывать неудобства, с другой стороны, исказить, щекотливый воп-рос, относительно чего-либо (2), сохранять беспристрастность, тесные связи, участвовать в опросах, анкета, высокий процент, отклонить личную просьбу, ряд приемов в исследовании, нетрадиционный пример, взаимно исключающие, оценка (2), респон¬дент, участник, объект (предмет) наблюдения, честность, дос¬тоинство, конфиденциальность, сотрудничество, ни при каких условиях, нейтральность оценки, этическое обязательство, про¬тиворечить чему-либо, обнародовать информацию. III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below. 1) An... of sociological research is the decision ... how data should be collected. 2) Sociologists use different techniques ... for their research. 3) When sociologists wish to study a possible ... they may conduct experiments. 4) An experiment allows the researcher ... to confirm ... to refute the hypothesis under study. 5) In conducting participant observation the investigator may... several problems. 6) If the researcher acts as ..., the members of the group may .... 7) If the researcher ... his identity and purpose, he is being somewhat.... 8) The observer cannot allow the close associations that... develop to influence the conclusion of the study. 9) Almost all of us have responded to ... . 10) Since the questions are written, there is some .... 11) Sociologists from Arizona studied people's spending and eating habits by examining ... . 12) Two or more research methods used together may be .... 13) Unobtrusive methods have proved to be valuable as ... to other research methods. 14) The beer consumption experiment produced ... of beer consumption. 15) It is very important how sociologists ... of their research. 16) Sociology should remain ... and not become ... influenced by government. 17) Sociology must ... to reveal information that is ... to government. remain free, embarrassing, an autonomous discipline, unduly, interpret the results, a considerably higher estimate, a supplement, especially informative, household garbage, guarantee of consistency, surveys of one kind or another, inevitably, disguises, dishonest, an outsider, feel uneasy, face, either ... or ... , cause-and-effect relationship, to generate data, important aspect, as to. IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own: to obtain data scientifically, to be exposed to, to collect data through, to get an accurate sense of, to face some problems, to resent smth, to disguise, to raise a delicate question, to provide smb with smth, to throw away, to include a variety of research techniques, to have some (no) impact on, to name a few examples, to prove to be ... , to abide by, under no condition, to accept research findings, to run counter to, to urge, to remain free. COMPREHENSION EXERCISES I. Reread the text and answer the following questions. 1) What research techniques do sociologists regularly use to generate data? 2) What is considered to be the classic method of conducting an experiment? 3) What problems does the sociologist face in conducting participant observation research? 4) What are the advantages of an interview and a questionnaire? 5) What basic techniques of unobtrusive measurement do you know? 6) Are different research designs viewed as mutually exclusive? 7) What must sociologists abide by while conducting research? 8) What are the basic principles of the code of ethics? 9) What else do the ethical considerations of sociologists lie in? 10) What is the main ethical category that sociologists should practice in conducting research? 11) What is important in the relationship of sociology to government? II. Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions: research design, experiment, survey, unobtrusive measures, code of ethics, value neutrality. III. Speak on the researchdesign and researchtechniques in brief and illustrate your report withsituations or examples of your own. IV. Determine a social problem of dailylife that is of interest to you and try to work out a researchdesign and choose researchtechniques to obtain and analyze data regarding it. V. Speak on the ethics of research and comment on its basic princip les developing the idea. Do you agree with all of them? Can you add any other principles to the Code of Ethics? VI. Read the following and comment on the topics suggested. 1) On the surface, the principles of the Code of Ethics seem quite clear-cut. It may be difficult to imagine how they could lead to any disagreement or controversy. However, many delicate ethical questions cannot be resolved simply by following these six points. For example, should asociologist engaged in participant-observation research always protect the confidentiality of subjects? What if the subjects are members of a religious cult engaged in unethical and even illegal activities? 2) The Code of Professional Ethics expects sociologists to disclose all funding sources. But it does not state whether sociologists who accept funding from a particular agency may also accept their idea on what should be studied. In this case sociologists turn from basic sociological research to applied research for government agencies and the private sector losing to a great extent the freedom to choose their own problems and substituting the problems of their clients for those which might have interested them on purely theoretical grounds. Two delicate questions arise here: a) Is it possible that applied sociology, the use of the discipline for some specific and practical applications, should get more prominent at the expense of basic sociology, the objective of which is to gain a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena? b) And can it be that Max Weber's ideal of value neutrality might be undermined too? Revision Exercises on Unit Two 1. Revise the active vocabulary and the definitions of the key terms of unit two and translate the following intoEnglish. 1) Как и обычный гражданин, социолог интересуется глав¬ными вопросами нашей повседневной жизни, но делает это ис¬пользуя научный метод исследования. 2) Социологи не просто выходят на улицу и начинают задавать вопросы, они разрабаты¬вают план исследования и отбирают технические приемы для сбора и анализа данных. 3) Существует пять основных стадий научного исследования: определение проблемы, обзор литературы по дан¬ной проблеме, формулировка гипотезы, выбор плана исследова¬ния для сбора данных и подведение итогов. 4) Формулируя гипо¬тезу, социологи не подразумевают, что она обязательно верна; они просто предполагают, что ее следует изучить. 5) В зависимо¬сти от конечного результата исследования гипотеза может быть подтверждена, опровергнута или пересмотрена. 6) Существуют различные способы отбора участников для проведения исследо¬вания, и случайная выборка является наиболее часто используе¬мым методом. 7) Научные исследования не имеют целью отве¬тить на все вопросы относительно данной проблемы, поэтому очень часто вывод исследования завершает отдельную фазу, но создает идеи для будущих изысканий. 8) Так оказалось и в случае с исследованием проблемы бездомных, проведенным американ¬скими социологами. 9) Вывод исследования доказал, что бездом¬ные, в основном, умственно полноценные люди, но они оказа-лись в ловушке тех экономических условий, которые привели их к бедственному положению и отчаянию. 10) Таким образом, бла¬годаря последовательному использованию научного метода ис-следователи изучили важную социальную проблему, и их выводы представляют интерес для социологов, психотерапевтов и госу¬дарственных деятелей. 11) Важным аспектом социологического исследования является решение вопроса о том, как следует отби¬рать необходимые данные. 12) В нашем обществе люди отрица¬тельно относятся к тому, что их подвергают обследованию. 13) Если исследователь скрывает свою личность и цель исследования, он поступает нечестно, и это может исказить процесс его внедрения в наблюдаемую группу. 14) Возникает щекотливый вопрос отно¬сительно влияния наблюдателя на группу и группы на наблюда¬теля. 15) Наблюдатель не может позволить, чтобы близкие отно¬шения, которые неизбежно возникают, повлияли на выводы ис¬следования. 16) Мы все подвергались опросам того или иного рода в форме либо интервью, либо анкетирования. 17) Людям труднее отказать в личной просьбе принять участие в интервью, чем выбросить анкету. 18) Социологи университета штата Аризо¬на изучали привычки людей в еде, исследуя домашние отбросы и мусор, оставленные на улице. 19) В большинстве социологичес¬ких исследований люди используются как источники информа¬ции: они являются респондентами в опросах, участниками экс¬периментов, объектами наблюдения. 20) Поэтому при проведе¬нии научных исследований социологи должны придерживаться Кодекса Этики. 21) Макс Вебер настаивал на том, чтобы социо¬логия оставалась независимой наукой и ни в коем случае не под¬вергалась влиянию со стороны какого-либо института общества. II. Reread the texts of unit two again and discuss the problem-questions given in the learning objectives in the introduction tothe unit. III. Comment on the following quotation, thinking like sociologists: «The great strategy of science — the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact» (Thomas H. Huxley «Biogenesis and Abiogenesis», 1870). Unit Three. ORGANIZING SOCIAL LIFE: CULTURE Looking Ahead In unit three we begin our study of the organization of social life within human communities and societies. Unit three examines the basic element of any society: its culture. It considers the development of culture from its roots in the prehistoric human experience, cultural universals and variations among cultures. The major aspects of culture — including language, norms, sanctions and values — are defined and explored. The discussion focuses both on the general cultural practices found in all societies and on the wide variations that can distinguish one society from another. Learning Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to answer the following questions: 1. How do aspects of a culture develop? How do they spread from one society to another? 2. What are the cultural universals? In what do they differ in different societies? 3. Through what process do human cultures change and expand? 4. Why do sociologists make a useful distinction between elements of material and nonmaterial culture? 5. Why is language viewed by sociologists as the foundation of every culture? 6. In what ways are norms and sanctions used to reward or to penalize human behavior? 7. Can you offer a list of basic human values typical of and common for all societies? 8. Should people maintain linguistic integrity within a particular society? Or should bilingualism be an important aspect of the educational policy in any country? Text V. DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE People live in human societies. A society is the largest form of human social organization that consists of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside their area and share a common heritage or a common culture. Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior. It includes ideas, values and customs of groups of people. Members of a society learn this culture and transmit it from one generation to the next. They preserve their distinctive culture through literature, video recordings and other means of expression. If it were not for the social transmission of culture, each generation would have to reinvent television, not to mention the wheel. The study of culture is an important part of contemporary sociological work. Through advances in culture, human beings have come a long way from our prehistoric heritage. Human beings have made dramatic cultural advances. We can send astronauts to the moon, we have such achievements as the symphonies of Beethoven, the paintings of Van Gogh, the poetry of Byron and the novels of Dostoevsky. Despite their differences, all societies have attempted to meet basic human needs by developing aspects of shared, learned behavior known as cultural universals. Cultural universals are general practices found in every culture. Anthropologists compiled a list of such universals that includes the following: athletic sports, attempts to influence weather, bodily adornment, calendar, cooking, courtship, dancing, dream interpretation, family, folklore, food habits, funeral ceremonies, games, gift giving, language, laws, medicine, music, myths, numerals, personal names, property rights, religion, sexual restrictions, tool making. Many cultural universals are, in fact, adaptations to meet essential human needs, such as people's need for food, shelter and clothing. Yet, the manner in which they are expressed will vary from culture to culture. For example, one society will attempt to influence its weather by seeding clouds with dry ice particles to bring about rain. Another culture may offer sacrifices to the gods in order to end a long period of drought. Each generation and each year most human cultures change and expand through the process of innovation and diffusion. An innovation is the process of introducing an idea or object that is new to culture. There are two forms of innovation: a discovery and an invention. A discovery involves making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality. The identification of a new moon of Saturn is an act of discovery. By contrast, an invention results when existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before. The bow and the arrow, the automobile and the television are all examples of inventions, as are Protestantism and democracy. The term diffusion refers to the process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or from society to society, i.e. to the process of adopting ideas, technology and customs from other cultures. For example, breakfast cereal comes originally from Germany, candy from the Netherlands, chewing gum from Mexico and the potato chip from the America of the Indians. Diffusion can occur through a variety of means, among them exploration, military conquests, missionary work, the influence of the mass media and tourism. Sociologists make a useful distinction between elements of material and nonmaterial culture. Material culture refers to the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives including food items, houses, factories and raw materials. Nonmaterial culture refers to ways of using material objects and to customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments and patterns of communications. Generally, the nonmaterial culture is more resistant to change than the material culture is. Therefore, foreign ideas are viewed as more threatening to a culture than foreign products are. We are more willing to use technological innovations that make our lives easier than ideologies that change our way of seeing the world. VOCABULARY PRACTICE I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary. II. Find In the text the English equivalents of the following: человеческое общество, иметь общее наследие, ценности, пе¬редавать из поколения в поколение, если бы не, пройти долгий путь развития, значительные успехи в культуре, несмотря на раз¬личия, удовлетворить основные человеческие потребности в, со¬ставить список, вызвать дождь, предложить идею (мысль), иметь место (происходить), четко разграничивать, убеждение, оказы¬вать сопротивление чему-либо, рассматриваться, угрожать, ис¬пытывать желание, изменить способ видения мира, распрост¬раняться, принимать идею (мысль). III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below. 1) People in a society are ... of people outside the area. 2) Culture is the ... of learned, socially transmitted behavior. 3) We preserve our ... culture through different means of expression. 4) The study of culture is an important part of ... social work. 5) Through advances in culture human beings have come a long way from our ... . 6) Human cultures change and ... each year. 7) Diffusion can occur .... 8) Sociologists ... a useful distinction between elements of material and nonmaterial culture. 9) Material culture refers to the ... or ... aspects of our daily life. 10)..., the nonmaterial culture is more resistant to ... than the material culture is. 11) Therefore, foreign ideas are viewed as more ... to a culture than foreign products are. 12) We are more willing to use technological innovations that ... than ideologies that .... make our lives easier, change our way of seeing the world, threatening, generally, change, physical, technological, make, through a variety of means, expand, prehistoric heritage, contemporary, distinctive, totality, relatively independent. IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own: to consist of, independent of, outside, to share smth, if it were not for, to come a long way from, to involve doing smth, by contrast, to refer to, to be spread, to occur, to make a distinction between, to bring about smth, to be resistant to, to be viewed as, to be willing to do smth. COMPREHENSION EXERCISES I. Reread the text and answer the following questions. 1) How do members of a society learn, transmit and preserve their distinctive culture? 2) Why do you think the study of culture is an important part of contemporary sociological work? 3) What cultural universals do anthropologists consider to be the most common for all human societies? 4) What do cultural universals have in common and what differs them? 5) How do human cultures change and expand? 6) Why do you think sociologists make a useful distinction between elements of material and nonmaterial culture? 7) How can you account for the fact that nonmaterial culture is more resistant to change than material culture? II. Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions: society, culture, cultural universals, innovation, discovery, invention, diffusion, material culture, nonmaterial culture. III. Speak on human culture and Its aspects in brief and illustrate your reports with examples and situations of your own. IV. Name the cultural universals and comment on them. Why do you think anthropologists have selected these items of human culture as cultural universals? V. Comment on the statement that culture is the totality of learned, sociallytransmitted behavior. VI. Give your own examples of innovations (both discoveries and inventions) and diffusions in our daily life. Text VI. ELEMENTS OF CULTURE The study of culture is an important part of contemporary sociological work. The major aspects of culture include language, norms, sanctions and values. Language is a critical element of culture that sets apart humans from other living beings. Language is the foundation of every living culture, though particular languages may differ in striking ways. Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture. It includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols and gestures of nonverbal communication. People depend upon language for it describes and shapes the reality of a culture. The word symbols and the grammar of a language organize the world for us. Linguists suggest that language may influence our behavior and interpretations of social reality. But they also think that language is not a «given», rather it is culturally determined and it leads to different interpretations of reality and certain phenomena. For example, in the United States you ask a hardware store clerk for a «flashlight», while in England, if you needed this item, you would have to ask for «an electric torch». Languages differ in the number of colors that are recognized. There are 11 basic terms in English. But the Russian and Hungarian languages have 12 color terms. The language barrier extends even to nonverbal communication. Many people in the United States interpreted Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev's hands-clasped gesture following a 1973 White House meeting with President Nixon as meaning «I've won» or «I'm the champ.» While that is indeed the American meaning of this gesture, Russians use the gesture as asymbol of friendship. Language is of great interest to the sociological perspective because it can shape how we see, taste, smell, feel and hear. It also influences the way we think about the people, ideas and objects around us. A culture's most important aspects are communicated to people through language. It is for these reasons that the introduction of new languages into a society is such a sensitive issue in many parts of the world. While the United States remains resistant to official use of languages other than English, other societies experience the pervasiveness of the English language. The domination of English stems from such factors as the demands of world trade, where English is used to negotiate many international business deals. In addition, English pervades rock music throughout the world. The leading popular and rock groups record in English. This does not mean that English is being enthusiastically welcomed in all countries. For example, «linguistic integrity» is somewhat a passion in France. The French minister of culture limited the number of American songs that French radio stations and discotheques could play, but later dropped the idea when a survey revealed 'that many discos would promptly have gone bankrupt. The government has gone so far as to establish committees to abolish Anglicisms and invent suitable French alternatives, such as «informatique» for «data processing». Responding with a dry sarcasm to such campaigns, the newspaper Le Monde suggested that the widely used term «sandwich» could be replaced with «two pieces of bread with something in the middle». Less concise but more French, Le Monde observed. All societies have particular ways of encouraging what they view as appropriate behavior while discouraging and punishing what they consider to be improper conduct. «Put on some clean clothes for dinner» and «Thou shall not kill,» just as respect for older people are examples of norms found in human culture. Norms are established standards of behavior maintained by a society. Sociologists distinguish between norms in two ways. First, norms are classified as formal or informal. Formal norms have been written down and involve strict rules for punishment of violators. In human society we often formalize norms into laws, which must be very precise in defining proper and improper behavior. By contrast, informal norms are generally understood but are not precisely recorded. Standards of proper dress are a common example of informal norms, while the rules of a card play are considered formal norms. Norms are also classified by their relative importance to society. When classified in this way, they are known as mores and folkways. Mores are norms highly necessary to the welfare of a society. Thus human society has strong mores against murder, treason and child abuse. Each society demands obedience to its mores; their violation can lead to severe penalties. Folkways are norms governing everyday behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern. Folkways very often are not shared in all societies. Let us look at one fascinating example: the folkways that govern how far we should stand from people when interacting with them. The anthropologist Edward Hall suggests that Americans and northern Europeans operate in four distance zones: 1. Intimate distance: up to 18 inches. That is the distance of lovemaking, wrestling, comforting, protecting and also of confrontation as in «Get your face out of mine!» 2. Personal distance: 18 inches to 4 feet. This is the conversational distance generally used with friends. 3. Social distance: 4 to 7 feet. Within this distance we conduct impersonal business, such as purchasing products or interviewing strangers. 4. Public distance: 12 feet and more. This is viewed as the proper distance for public occasions. It will be used to separate a speaker or a famous person from admiring fans. It is important to note that these distances are not universally upheld in all cultures. Southern Europeans, Arabs and Latin Americans stand closer together when conversing and are more likely to touch one another and maintain eye contact. What happens when people violate a widely shared and understood norm? In this case they will receive sanctions. Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm. Positive sanctions are a pay raise, a medal, a word of gratitude or a pat on the back. Negative sanctions include fines, threats, imprisonment and even states of contempt. The relationship between norms and sanctions in a culture reflects that culture's values and priorities. Values are those collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a culture. They indicate what people in a given culture prefer as well as what they find important and morally right (or wrong). Values may be specific, such as honoring one's parents, or they may be more general, such as health, love and democracy. Values influence people's behavior and serve as criteria for evaluating the actions of others.There is a direct relationship between the values, norms and sanctions of a culture. For example, if a culture views private property as a basic value, it will probably have laws against theft and vandalism. The values of a culture may change but most remain relatively stable during any one person's lifetime. The sociologist Robin Williams has offered a list of basic American values, including achievement, efficiency, material comfort, nationalism, equality and the supremacy of science and reason over faith. Socially shared, intensely felt these values are a fundamental part of human lives in the United States. VOCABULARY PRACTICE I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary. II. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following: отделять ... от, значительно отличаться, очерчивать (придавать или принимать форму, вид), влиять на наше поведение, толкова¬ние (объяснение) реальности, языковой барьер, неязыковое об-щение, представлять большой интерес для, передаваться через язык, именно по этим причинам, остро ощущаемая проблема, сопротивляться чему-либо, требования мировой торговли, вести переговоры о деловых сделках, отказаться от затеи, обанкротить¬ся, учредить комитет, запретить, поощрить, расхолаживать, не¬правильное поведение, принятые нормы, поддерживать (утверж-дать), различать, нарушитель (закона), точный, простой пример, благосостояние общества, народный обычай (нрав), повинове¬ние чему-либо, нарушение (насилие), суровое наказание, разде¬лять мнение, яркий пример, придерживаться взгляда, отражать, чтить своих родителей, критерий оценки, прямая взаимосвязь. III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below. 1) Language is ... of culture that sets apart humans from other living beings. 2) People depend upon language, ... it describes and shapes our reality. 3) Languages differ in the number of colors that are .... 4) The language barrier ... to nonverbal communication. 5) A culture's most important aspects are communicated to people .... 6) Many societies experience ... of the English language. 7) English ... rock music throughout the world. 8) English is not ... welcomed in all countries. 9) «Linguistic integrity» ia somewhat ... in France. 10) A survey.... that many discos had gone bankrupt. 11) The newspaper Le Monde responded to this campaign ... . 12) Violation of laws can lead to .... 13) Folkways ... how far we should stand while ... with one another. 14) It is important... that this is not ... upheld. 15) Values ... as criteria for ... the actions of others. 16) Most values remain ... during any one person's lifetime. relatively stable, serve, evaluating, to note, universally, govern, conversing, severe penalties, with a dry sarcasm, revealed, a passion, enthusiastically, pervades, pervasiveness, through language, extends, recognized, for, a critical element IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own: to set apart ... from, to differ in striking ways, to depend upon, to influence smth, to lead to, to ask smb for, to extend to, to be of great interest to, it is for these reasons (this reason), a sensitive issue, to remain resistant to, to experience, to stem from, to pervade smth, to drop the idea, to go bankrupt, to go so far as, to view smth as appropriate behavior, to be precise in defining, to demand obedience to, to raise little (great) concern, to be universally upheld, to be (un)likely, to serve as, a direct relationship, to view ... as abasic value, socially shared.

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